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The calibrations are done in the static mode by using a small laser-produced X-ray source. A calibrated X-ray CCD is used as a secondary standard detector to monitor the X-ray source intensity. Results show that the calibrated spectrum covers the range from eV to eV. The change of the absolute sensitivity in the vicinity of the K-edge of the carbon can also be clearly seen.

Compared with previous calibration methods , the proposed method has several advantages: Our calibration results can be used to make quantitative X-ray flux measurements in laser fusion research. Assessment study of lichenometric methods for dating surfaces. In this paper, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the most classical approaches used in lichenometry. In particular, we perform a detailed comparison among methods based on the statistical analysis of either the largest lichen diameters recorded on geomorphic features or the frequency of all lichens.

To assess the performance of each method , a careful comparison design with well-defined criteria is proposed and applied to two distinct data sets. First, we study tombstones. This represents an ideal test bed because tombstone dates are known and, therefore, the quality of the estimated lichen growth curve can be easily tested for the different techniques. Secondly, 37 moraines from two tropical glaciers are investigated. This analysis corresponds to our real case study.

For both data sets, we apply our list of criteria that reflects precision, error measurements and their theoretical foundations when proposing estimated ages and their associated confidence intervals. From this comparison, it clearly appears that two methods , the mean of the n largest lichen diameters and the recent Bayesian method based on extreme value theory, offer the most reliable estimates of moraine and tombstones dates.

Concerning the spread of the error, the latter approach provides the smallest uncertainty and it is the only one that takes advantage of the statistical nature of the observations by fitting an extreme value distribution to the largest diameters. Air content of polar ice, V, depends primarily on air pressure, temperature and pore volume at close-off prevailing at the site of ice formation.

The first , years remarkably displays the fundamental Milankovitch orbital frequencies. But most of the variations observed in the V record cannot be explained neither by air pressure nor by temperature changes, and then should reflect properties influencing the porosity at close-off other than temperature.

A wavelet analysis indicates a dominant period around 41 kyr, the period characteristic of the obliquity variations of the Earth's axis. We propose that the local insolation, via the solar radiation absorbed by the snow, leaves its imprint on the snow structure, then affects the snow-firn transition, and therefore is one of the controlling factors for the porosity at close-off.

Such mechanism could account for the observed anti-correlation between local insolation and V. We estimate the variations of the absorbed solar flux in the near-surface snow layers on the basis of a simple albedo model Lemieux-Dudon et al. We compare the dating of the ice obtained using the local insolation signal deduced from the V record with a chronology based on ice flow modelling.

We discuss the glaciological implications of the comparison between the two chronologies, as well as the potential of local insolation markers for approaching an absolute dating of ice core. The latest results covering the period kyr BP will also be presented. The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute -value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they….

Late Quaternary glacier fluctuations in the Macha Khola valley Gorkha Himal, Nepal were reconstructed using relative and absolute dating techniques. Our results indicate that younger moraine complexes were left by Late Holocene Laser interferometry method for absolute measurement of the acceleration of gravity. Gravimeter permits more accurate and precise absolute measurement of g without reference to Potsdam values as absolute standards. Device is basically Michelson laser beam interferometer in which one arm is mass fitted with corner cube reflector.

Relative Dating of Rock Layers

Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully. What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students Wei ; Stallings-Roberts…. Method of self-consistent evaluation of absolute emission probabilities of particles and gamma rays. In assumption of well installed decay scheme the method provides a exact balance relationships, b lower compared to the traditional techniques uncertainties of recommended absolute emission probabilities of particles and gamma rays, c evaluation of correlations between the recommended emission probabilities for the same and different decay modes.

Application of the method for the decay data evaluation for even curium isotopes led to paradoxical results. Absolute gravimeters, based on laser interferometry, are widely used for many applications in geoscience and metrology. The measurement results for FG and FG5X clearly showed that the measured g-values depend on the size of the fringe signal and that this effect might be approximated by a linear regression with a slope of up to 0.

However, these empirical results do not enable one to identify the source of the effect or to determine a reasonable reference fringe level for correcting g-values in an absolute sense. The new systems use an analogue-to-digital converter HS5 to digitize the fringe signal and a new method of fringe signal analysis based on FFT swept bandpass filtering.

We demonstrate that the source of the fringe size effect is connected to a distortion of the fringe signal due to the electronic components used in the FG5 X gravimeters. To obtain a bias-free g-value, the FFT swept method should be applied for the determination of zero-crossings. The detector was held with a through-hole-type NaI Tl detector. The results include absolutely determined activity and its uncertainty especially about extrapolation. A comparison between the obtained and known activities showed agreement within their uncertainties.

Bu, Lintao; Beckham, Gregg T. Understanding the enzymatic mechanism that cellulases employ to degrade cellulose is critical to efforts to efficiently utilize plant biomass as a sustainable energy resource. A key component of cellulase action on cellulose is product inhibition from monosaccharide and disaccharides in the product site of cellulase tunnel.

The absolute binding free energy of cellobiose and glucose to the product site of the catalytic tunnel of the Family 7 cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei Hypocrea jecorina was calculated using two different approaches: For the SMD approach, three methods based on Jarzynski's equality were used to construct the potential of mean force from multiple pulling trajectories. Analysis of the SMD pulling trajectories suggests that several protein residues Arg, Asp, Asp, Trp, and Tyr play key roles in cellobiose and glucose binding to the catalytic tunnel. The results demonstrated that all of the mutants tested can lower the binding free energy of cellobiose, which provides potential applications in engineering the enzyme to accelerate the product expulsion process and improve the efficiency of biomass conversion.

The global reach of single, calibrated ELF receivers operating in the Schumann resonance SR band Hz has been verified by global maps of energetic Q-burst locations and vertical charge moment change, and by locations of independently verified transient luminous events in a wide variety of locations worldwide.

This inversion method involves a propagation model for the Earth-ionosphere cavity with day-night asymmetry. The Earth is now populated with more than 30 calibrated ELF receivers making continuous time series observations. This circumstance is exploited in the present study to verify the findings of the ELF inversion method. During the period May and , , two independent sets of nine ELF receivers each, in widely-separated geographical locations first set: Detailed comparisons will be shown over Universal Time for selected days.

Probabilistic performance estimators for computational chemistry methods: The empirical cumulative distribution function of absolute errors. Benchmarking studies in computational chemistry use reference datasets to assess the accuracy of a method through error statistics. The commonly used error statistics, such as the mean signed and mean unsigned errors, do not inform end-users on the expected amplitude of prediction errors attached to these methods.

We show that, the distributions of model errors being neither normal nor zero-centered, these error statistics cannot be used to infer prediction error probabilities. To overcome this limitation, we advocate for the use of more informative statistics, based on the empirical cumulative distribution function of unsigned errors, namely, 1 the probability for a new calculation to have an absolute error below a chosen threshold and 2 the maximal amplitude of errors one can expect with a chosen high confidence level.

Those statistics are also shown to be well suited for benchmarking and ranking studies. Moreover, the standard error on all benchmarking statistics depends on the size of the reference dataset. Systematic publication of these standard errors would be very helpful to assess the statistical reliability of benchmarking conclusions. Absolute flatness measurements of silicon mirrors by a three-intersection method by near-infrared interferometry. Absolute flatness of three silicon plane mirrors have been measured by a three-intersection method based on the three-flat method using a near-infrared interferometer.

The interferometer was constructed using a near-infrared laser diode with a 1,nm wavelength light where the silicon plane mirror is transparent. The height differences at the coordinate values between the absolute line profiles by the three-intersection method have been evaluated. The height differences of the three flats were 4.

The three-intersection method using the near-infrared interferometer was useful for measuring the absolute flatness of the silicon plane mirrors. Tsunakawa-Shaw method - an absolute paleointensity technique using alternating field demagnetization. Among geologic materials volcanic rocks have been typically used to deduce an absolute paleointensity. In the last decade, however, there seems a becoming consensus that volcanic rocks are not so ideal materials due to such as magnetic grains other than non-interacting single domain particles.

One approach to obtain a good paleointensity estimate from the rocks is to reduce and correct the non-ideality, suppress alterations in laboratory and screen out suspicious results. This method is an AF alternating field -based technique and thus a paleointensity is estimated using coercivity spectra. To reduce the non-ideality, all remanences undergo low-temperature demagnetization LTD before any AF demagnetizations to remove multi-domain like component.

To correct the non-ideality, anhysteretic remanent magnetizations ARMs are imparted with their directions parallel to natural remanent magnetizations and laboratory-imparted thermoremanent magnetizations TRMs and measured before and after laboratory heating. These ARMs are used to correct remanence anisotropies, possible interaction effects originated from the non-ideal grains and TRM changes caused by laboratory alterations. TRMs are imparted by heating specimens above their Curie temperatures and then cooling to room temperature at once to simulate nature conditions. These cycles are done in vacuum to suppress alterations in laboratory.

Obtained results are judged by selection criteria, including a check for validity of the ARM corrections. In case of old volcanic rocks, however, the method does not necessarily seem to be perfect. We will summarize these points in. Feature selection FS methods are widely used in grading and diagnosing prostate histopathological images.

In this context, FS is based on the texture features obtained from the lumen, nuclei, cytoplasm and stroma, all of which are important tissue components. However, it is difficult to represent the high-dimensional textures of these tissue components. To solve this problem, we propose a new FS method that enables the selection of features with minimal redundancy in the tissue components.

We categorise tissue images based on the texture of individual tissue components via the construction of a single classifier and also construct an ensemble learning model by merging the values obtained by each classifier. Another issue that arises is overfitting due to the high-dimensional texture of individual tissue components.

Absolute dating

The colon benchmark dataset requires a distinction between grades 1 and 2, which are the most difficult cases to distinguish in the colon domain. Thus, it makes possible the distinction between multiple Gleason grades e. The WOAV13 dataset comprises 3D global gridded climatological fields of absolute geostrophic velocity inverted It provides a climatological velocity field that is This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling MES used to rate subjective stimuli.

We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…. The performance of different propensity score methods for estimating absolute effects of treatments on survival outcomes: Observational studies are increasingly being used to estimate the effect of treatments, interventions and exposures on outcomes that can occur over time. Historically, the hazard ratio, which is a relative measure of effect, has been reported. However, medical decision making is best informed when both relative and absolute measures of effect are reported. When outcomes are time-to-event in nature, the effect of treatment can also be quantified as the change in mean or median survival time due to treatment and the absolute reduction in the probability of the occurrence of an event within a specified duration of follow-up.

We describe how three different propensity score methods , propensity score matching, stratification on the propensity score and inverse probability of treatment weighting using the propensity score, can be used to estimate absolute measures of treatment effect on survival outcomes. These methods are all based on estimating marginal survival functions under treatment and lack of treatment. We then conducted an extensive series of Monte Carlo simulations to compare the relative performance of these methods for estimating the absolute effects of treatment on survival outcomes.

We found that stratification on the propensity score resulted in the greatest bias. When the prevalence of treatment was less extreme, then inverse probability of treatment weighting-based methods tended to perform better than matching-based methods. Using new luminescence methods to date the Palaeolithic: The Palaeolithic site of Kalambo Falls in the north of Zambia was the subject of detailed study by J.

Clark in the s with 4 excavations being located within 1 km of each other in a basin upstream of the falls. A rich palaeolithic tool record was recovered, but the value of this record was limited by the lack of chronological information available. In , one of the excavation sites was re-investigated Barham et al. Many of the sediments in the Kalambo basin were deposited by fluvial activity.

Dose distributions in the single grain quartz optically stimulated luminescence OSL measurements of the youngest sediments are consistent with incomplete bleaching. However, the residual doses obtained are typically less than 10 Gy, and so for older sediments the impact of incomplete bleaching becomes insignificant.

The oldest samples are affected by a different problem, namely saturation of the OSL signal, and many grains are saturated. However in all cases some grains give finite equivalent dose values, making it feasible to calculate single grain quartz OSL ages, but it is difficult to assess whether these ages are reliable or not.

Only by using the two luminescence methods is it possible to create an absolute chronology for this key site stretching back over half a million years. This study demonstrates the potential of using these two luminescence signals together for dating Palaeolithic sites throughout Africa and beyond.

Recent excavations at Kalambo Falls, Zambia. Compared with the conventionally used photoabsorption method , this new method is free from the line saturation effect, which can seriously limit the accuracies of the measured photoabsorption cross sections for discrete transitions with narrow natural linewidths. We present a comparative study of absolute distances to a sample of very nearby, bright Type Ia supernovae SNe derived from high cadence, high signal-to-noise, multi-band photometric data. Our sample consists of four SNe: For the highly reddened SN J the dispersion of the inferred distance moduli is slightly higher.

These SN-based distances are in good agreement with the Cepheid distances to their host galaxies. Generic method for the absolute quantification of glutathione S-conjugates: Application to the conjugates of acetaminophen, clozapine and diclofenac. Modification of cellular macromolecules by reactive drug metabolites is considered to play an important role in the initiation of tissue injury by many drugs. Detection and identification of reactive intermediates is often performed by analyzing the conjugates formed after trapping by glutathione GSH.

Although sensitivity of modern mass spectrometrical methods is extremely high, absolute quantification of GSH-conjugates is critically dependent on the availability of authentic references. Although 1 H NMR is currently the method of choice for quantification of metabolites formed biosynthetically, its intrinsically low sensitivity can be a limiting factor in quantification of GSH-conjugates which generally are formed at low levels.

In the present study, a simple but sensitive and generic method for absolute quantification of GSH-conjugates is presented. The novel method was used to quantify the concentrations of GSH-conjugates of diclofenac, clozapine and acetaminophen and quantification was consistent with 1 H NMR, but with a more than fold lower detection limit for absolute quantification. Published by Elsevier B. EIT Imaging of admittivities with a D-bar method and spatial prior: Electrical impedance tomography EIT is an emerging imaging modality that uses harmless electrical measurements taken on electrodes at a body's surface to recover information about the internal electrical conductivity and or permittivity.

The image reconstruction task of EIT is a highly nonlinear inverse problem that is sensitive to noise and modeling errors making the image reconstruction task challenging. D-bar methods solve the nonlinear problem directly, bypassing the need for detailed and time-intensive forward models, to provide absolute static as well as time-difference EIT images.

Coupling the D-bar methodology with the inclusion of high confidence a priori data results in a noise-robust regularized image reconstruction method. In this work, the a priori D-bar method for complex admittivities is demonstrated effective on experimental tank data for absolute imaging for the first time. Additionally, the method is adjusted for, and tested on, time-difference imaging scenarios. The ability of the method to be used for conductivity, permittivity, absolute as well as time-difference imaging provides the user with great flexibility without a high computational cost.

Bringing the cross-correlation method up to date.

Relative Vs. Absolute Dating: The Ultimate Face-off

In the new algorithm the correlation function itself, rather than the observed galaxy spectrum, is fitted by the model line profile: The standard reduced chi exp 2 is a good measure of the fit of the inferred velocity distribution, largely decoupled from the fit of the spectral template. The updated XC method performs as well as other recently developed methods , with the added virtue of conceptual simplicity.

The aim of this work is to make use of the mean of absolute deviation MAD method for the evaluation process of substitution boxes used in the advanced encryption standard. In this paper, we use the MAD technique to analyze some popular and prevailing substitution boxes used in encryption processes. Determination of the age of the dwellings of primitive man is of interest both from the point of view of the stratigraphy of quaternary deposits and for solving anthropogenetic problems.

For this reason, radiocarbon dating techniques were used for layers containing paleolithic residue of Molodova V, located in a m deep canyon at the right bank of the Dnester River in the Chernowith region. The measurements were carried out at a depth of 3. Thus, radiocarbon dating results confirmed earlier findings obtained by topological means concerning the age of the region near the Dnester River.

Absolute nuclear material assay. A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Method and apparatus for ultra-high-sensitivity, incremental and absolute optical encoding. An absolute optical linear or rotary encoder which encodes the motion of an object 3 with increased resolution and encoding range and decreased sensitivity to damage to the scale includes a scale 5 , which moves with the object and is illuminated by a light source The scale carries a pattern 9 which is imaged by a microscope optical system 13 on a CCD array 17 in a camera head The pattern includes both fiducial markings 31 which are identical for each period of the pattern and code areas 33 which include binary codings of numbers identifying the individual periods of the pattern.

The image of the pattern formed on the CCD array is analyzed by an image processor 23 to locate the fiducial marking, decode the information encoded in the code area, and thereby determine the position of the object. An absolute method for determination of misalignment of an immersion ultrasonic transducer. An absolute methodology has been developed for quantification of misalignment of an ultrasonic transducer using a corner-cube retroreflector.

The amplitude based and the time of flight TOF based C-scans of the reflector are obtained for various misalignments of the transducer. At zero degree orientation of the transducer, the vertical positions of the maximum amplitude and the minimum TOF in the C-scan coincide. At any other orientation of the transducer with the horizontal plane, there is a vertical shift in the position of the maximum amplitude with respect to the minimum TOF. The position of the minimum TOF remains the same irrespective of the orientation of the transducer and hence is used as a reference for any misalignment of the transducer.

With the measurement of the vertical shift and the horizontal distance between the transducer and the vertex of the reflector, the misalignment of the transducer is quantified. Based on the methodology developed in the present study, retroreflectors are placed in the Indian MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor for assessment of the orientation of the ultrasonic transducer prior to the under-sodium ultrasonic scanning for detection of any protrusion of the subassemblies.

MRI-based methods using interleaved and combined hypercapnia and hyperoxia. Blood oxygenation level dependent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging FMRI is most commonly used in a semi-quantitative manner to infer changes in brain activity. Despite the basis of the image contrast lying in the cerebral venous blood oxygenation level, quantification of absolute cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption CMRO2 has only recently been demonstrated. The first approach is to apply hypercapnia and hyperoxia separately but interleaved in time and the second is a combined approach in which we apply hyperoxic challenges simultaneously with different levels of hypercapnia.

Eleven healthy volunteers were studied at 3T using a dual gradient-echo spiral readout pulsed arterial spin labelling ASL imaging sequence. Respiratory challenges were conducted using an automated system of dynamic end-tidal forcing. A generalised BOLD signal model was applied, within a Bayesian estimation framework, that aims to explain the effects of modulation of CBF and arterial oxygen content to estimate venous deoxyhaemoglobin concentration [dHb]0.

Current thermometry methods are either invasive or measure only temperature change, which limits the ability to study tissue responses to HT. This study combines manganese-containing low-temperature sensitive liposomes Mn-LTSL with proton resonance frequency shift PRFS thermometry to measure absolute temperature in tumors with high spatial and temporal resolution using MRI. The release of manganese from Mn-LTSL in saline was characterized with inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

Accuracies of calibrated temperature measurements were in the range 0. A practical method of estimating standard error of age in the fission track dating method. The correlation, r, between spontaneous are induced track densities is a crucial element in the error analysis, acting generally to improve the standard error of age.

Dating Methods

In addition, the correlation parameter r is instrumental is specifying the level of neutron dose, a controlled variable, which will minimize the standard error of age. The results from the approximation equation agree closely with the results from an independent statistical model for the propagation of errors in the fission-track dating method.

Radar prediction of absolute rain fade distributions for earth-satellite paths and general methods for extrapolation of fade statistics to other locations. The first absolute rain fade distribution method described establishes absolute fade statistics at a given site by means of a sampled radar data base.

The second method extrapolates absolute fade statistics from one location to another, given simultaneously measured fade and rain rate statistics at the former. Both methods employ similar conditional fade statistic concepts and long term rain rate distributions. The extrapolation of fade distributions to other locations at 28 GHz showed very good agreement with measured data at three sites located in the continental temperate region.

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Barnacles have never been successfully dated by electron spin resonance ESR. Living mainly in the intertidal zone, barnacles die when sea level changes cause their permanent exposure. Thus, dating the barnacles dates past sea level changes. From this, we can measure apparent sea level changes that occur due to ocean volume changes, crustal isostasy, and tectonics.

ESR can date aragonitic mollusc shells ranging in age from 5 ka to at least ka. By modifying the standard ESR method for molluscs to chemically dissolve 20 microm from off the shells, six barnacle samples from Norridgewock, Maine, and Khyex River, British Columbia, were tested for suitability for ESR dating.

These ages agree well with 14C dates on the barnacles themselves and wood in the overlying glaciomarine sediment. Although stability tests to calculate the mean dating signal lifetime and more ESR calibration tests against other barnacles of known age are needed to ensure the method 's accuracy, ESR can indeed date Balanus, and thus, sea level changes.

Elatenyne is a marine natural product that was isolated in Despite its simple 2,2'-bifuranyl backbone, its relative structure was only recently determined. In this work, the structure of natural elatenyne was determined by the crystalline sponge method and the use of a porous coordination network a crystalline sponge capable of absorbing organic guests; in the sponge, the absorbed guests are ordered and crystallographically observable.

The crystalline sponge could differentiate between the two very similar alkyl side chains, and the absolute structure of elatenyne was thus reliably determined. Computational method for estimating boundary of abdominal subcutaneous fat for absolute electrical impedance tomography.

Abdominal fat accumulation is considered an essential indicator of human health. Electrical impedance tomography has considerable potential for abdominal fat imaging because of the low specific conductivity of human body fat. In this paper, we propose a robust reconstruction method for high-fidelity conductivity imaging by abstraction of the abdominal cross section using a relatively small number of parameters.

Toward this end, we assume homogeneous conductivity in the abdominal subcutaneous fat area and characterize its geometrical shape by parameters defined as the ratio of the distance from the center to boundary of subcutaneous fat to the distance from the center to outer boundary in 64 equiangular directions. To estimate the shape parameters, the sensitivity of the noninvasively measured voltages with respect to the shape parameters is formulated for numerical optimization.


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Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. A 3-dimensional finite element method is used to construct a computer model of the human abdomen. The inverse problems of shape parameters and conductivities are solved concurrently by iterative forward and inverse calculations. A novel method is devised for estimating the boundary of the abdominal subcutaneous fat. The fidelity of the overall reconstructed image to the reference image is significantly improved.

The results demonstrate the possibility of realization of an abdominal fat scanner as a low-cost, radiation-free medical device.


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The purpose of this study was to establish a practical method to estimate the absolute boron concentrations in the tissues based on the standardized uptake values SUVs after administration of 4-borono-phenylalanine BPA using 4-borono 18 F-fluoro-phenylalanine 18 F-FBPA PET.

The absolute boron concentrations unit: Relatively large underestimation was observed for the lung In contrast, relatively large overestimation was observed for the kidney Method of excess fractions with application to absolute distance metrology: Multiwavelength interferometry MWI is a well established technique in the field of optical metrology. Previously, we have reported a theoretical analysis of the method of excess fractions that describes the mutual dependence of unambiguous measurement range, reliability, and the measurement wavelengths.

In this paper wavelength, selection strategies are introduced that are built on the theoretical description and maximize the reliability in the calculated fringe order for a given measurement range, number of wavelengths, and level of phase noise. Practical implementation issues for an MWI interferometer are analyzed theoretically.

It is shown that dispersion compensation is best implemented by use of reference measurements around absolute zero in the interferometer. Furthermore, the effects of wavelength uncertainty allow the ultimate performance of an MWI interferometer to be estimated. Mapping the African thunderstorm center in absolute units using Schumann resonance spectral decomposition method.

Monitoring of the global lightning activity provides a very useful tool to study the global warming phenomenon and the other longer-scale climate changes induced by humans. However, the global lightning activity measurements are possible only in the ELF range. Here we examine the African thunderstorm activity center, which is the most violent and active one. In a spherical damped resonator, such as the Earth-ionosphere cavity, the electromagnetic field is described by the solution of an inhomogeneous wave equation.

For such equation the general solution can be expressed by the superposition of the solutions of the homogeneous equation, describing the resonance field, and the component, which is quite strong close to the source and weakens with source-observer separation. Thus, the superposition of the standing wave field with the field of traveling waves, which supply the energy from the lighting discharges to the global resonator, is a main reason for an asymmetric shape of the observational Schumann resonance SR power spectra, which highly deviate from the Lorentz curves.

In our approach, we apply the inverse problem solution for determining the distance of the dominant lightning source. The distances to the thunderstorm centers are calculated using the analytical models for the electromagnetic waves propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. Such forms of analytic solutions of the resonant field in the spherical cavity is the zonal harmonic series representation, described by Mushtak and Williams [] and we calculated the sets of such curves.

Summ means the entirety of the multiverse. It seems clear, from the inflation theories of A. Guth and others, that the creation of many universes is plausible. We argue that Absolute cosmological ideas, not unlike those of I. Newton, may be consistent with dynamic multiverse creations. As suggested in W. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and with the Anthropic Principle defended by S. Einstein realized with Invariants and General Relativity, may be required for new ideas to be part of physics.

We present here a two postulate model geared to an Absolute Summ.

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The seedbed of this work is part of Akhnaton's philosophy see S. Freud, Moses and Monotheism. Most important, however, is that the structure of human consciousness, manifest in Kenya's Rift Valley , years ago as Homo sapiens, who were the culmination of the six million year co-creation process of Hominins and Nature in Africa, allows us to do the physics that we do.

Optical factors determined by the T-matrix method in turbidity measurement of absolute coagulation rate constants. Turbidity measurement for the absolute coagulation rate constants of suspensions has been extensively adopted because of its simplicity and easy implementation. A key factor in deriving the rate constant from experimental data is how to theoretically evaluate the so-called optical factor involved in calculating the extinction cross section of doublets formed during aggregation.

In a previous paper, we have shown that compared with other theoretical approaches, the T-matrix method provides a robust solution to this problem and is effective in extending the applicability range of the turbidity methodology, as well as increasing measurement accuracy. This paper will provide a more comprehensive discussion of the physical insight for using the T-matrix method in turbidity measurement and associated technical details.

In particular, the importance of ensuring the correct value for the refractive indices for colloidal particles and the surrounding medium used in the calculation is addressed, because the indices generally vary with the wavelength of the incident light. The comparison of calculated results with experiments shows that the T-matrix method can correctly calculate optical factors even for large particles, whereas other existing theories cannot. In addition, the data of the optical factor calculated by the T-matrix method for a range of particle radii and incident light wavelengths are listed.

A non-invasive diffuse reflectance calibration-free method for absolute determination of exogenous biochemicals concentration in biological tissues. The paper presents a new method for distant non-destructive determination of concentration of light absorbing admixtures in turbid media. In particular, it is intended for non-invasive in vivo control of accumulation in patient tissues of various biochemicals introduced to the patients for chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy or diagnostics.

It is require that the admixture absorption spectrum should have a clearly marked peak in the wavelength region where the pure medium one varies regularly. Fluorescence of admixtures is not required. The method uses the local diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with optical fiber probe including one emitting and two reading There are several features in the method: Absolute -age constraints on the Neoproterozoic glaciations are generally poor due to a paucity of suitable plutonic and volcanic igneous rocks that are temporally and spatially related to Neoproterozoic glaciogenic deposits and are amenable to radiometric dating methods.

In this study, the Re-Os isotope systematics of dark gray, sulfidic slates from the Old Fort Point Formation OFP of the Windermere Supergroup near Jasper, Alberta were examined to test the ability of the Re-Os geochronometer to provide an absolute age constraint for a Neoproterozoic glaciogenic deposit. The OFP has been interpreted as the deep water expression of post-glacial sea level rise and therefore is comparable stratigraphically to cap carbonates that immediately overlie glaciogenic deposits worldwide.

Despite the relatively low Re ppb and Os 0. An age of Using a method designed to selectively dissolve organic matter alone, an age of These absolute age results are in accord with existing age constraints e. The well-defined Re-Os systematics of the OFP slates demonstrates for the first time that the Re-Os system is not disturbed in organic-rich sediments during lower greenschist -chlorite grade metamorphic conditions. Methods for calculating the absolute entropy and free energy of biological systems based on ideas from polymer physics.

The commonly used simulation techniques, Metropolis Monte Carlo MC and molecular dynamics MD are of a dynamical type which enables one to sample system configurations i correctly with the Boltzmann probability, P i B , while the value of P i B is not provided directly; therefore, it is difficult to obtain the absolute entropy, S approximately -ln P i B , and the Helmholtz free energy, F. With a different simulation approach developed in polymer physics, a chain is grown step-by-step with transition probabilities TPs , and thus their product is the value of the construction probability; therefore, the entropy is known.

Because all exact simulation methods are equivalent, i. Thus, each configuration i of the sample can be reconstructed from nothing by calculating the TPs with which it could have been constructed. This idea applies also to bulk systems such as fluids or magnets. This approach has led earlier to the "local states" LS and the "hypothetical scanning" HS methods , which are approximate in nature. The validity of HSMC has been established by applying it first to liquid argon, TIP3P water, self-avoiding walks SAW , and polyglycine models, where the results for F were found to agree with those obtained by other methods.

Subsequently, HSMD was applied to mobile loops of the enzymes porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase and acetylcholinesterase in explicit water, where the difference in F between the bound and free states of the loop was calculated. An accurate proteomic quantification method: A facile proteomic quantification method , fluorescent labeling absolute quantification FLAQ , was developed. Several requirements should be met for fluorescent labeling in MS identification: Labeling completeness, minimum side-reactions, simple MS spectra, and no extra tandem MS fragmentations for structure elucidations.

A fluorescence dye, 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein, was finally chosen to label proteins on all cysteine residues. Quantitative labeling was achieved with optimization of reacting conditions. A synthesized peptide and model proteins, BSA 35 cysteines , OVA five cysteines , were used for verifying the completeness of labeling. Coral records provide better resolution, but these are available only for tropical locations. It is shown here that it is possible to use the shell of the long-lived bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica as a source of high resolution time series of absolutely-dated marine radiocarbon determinations for the shelf seas surrounding the North Atlantic ocean.

Annual growth increments in the shell can be crossdated and chronologies can be constructed in a precise analogue with the use of tree-rings. Palaeomagnetic dating method accounting for post-depositional remanence and its application to geomagnetic field modelling.

Here we present a new Bayesian method to construct age-depth models based on palaeomagnetic data, taking into account and correcting for potential lock-in delay. The age-depth model is built on the widely used "Bacon" dating software by Blaauw and Christen , Bayesian Analysis 6, and is designed to combine both radiocarbon and palaeomagnetic measurements. To our knowledge, this is the first palaeomagnetic dating method that addresses the potential problems related post-depositional remanent magnetisation acquisition in age-depth modelling.

Age-depth models, including site specific lock-in depth and lock-in filter function, produced with this method are shown to be consistent with independent results based on radiocarbon wiggle match dated sediment sections. Besides its primary use as a dating tool, our new method can also be used specifically to identify the most likely lock-in parameters for a specific record. We explore the potential to use these results to construct high-resolution geomagnetic field models based on sedimentary palaeomagnetic data, adjusting for smoothing induced by post-depositional remanent magnetisation acquisition.

Potentially, this technique could enable reconstructions of Holocene geomagnetic field with the same amplitude of variability observed in archaeomagnetic field models for the past three millennia. Effect of various methods for rectum delineation on relative and absolute dose-volume histograms for prostate IMRT treatment planning. Several reports have dealt with correlations of late rectal toxicity with rectal dose-volume histograms DVHs for high dose levels. There are 2 techniques to assess rectal volume for reception of a specific dose: The parameters of DVH vary depending on the rectum delineation method , but the literature does not present any standardization of such methods.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different delineation methods on rectal DVHs. The rectum was contoured with 4 different methods using 2 lengths, short Sh and long Lg , and 2 cross sections, rectum Rec and rectal wall Rw. Sh means the length from 1 cm above the seminal vesicles to 1 cm below the prostate and Lg the length from the rectosigmoid junction to the anus. Rec represents the entire rectal volume including the rectal contents and Rw the rectal volume of the area with a wall thickness of 4 mm.

For the high dose levels, the R-DVH parameters varied widely. On the contrary, only small variations were observed in the A-DVH parameters 4. Validated reverse transcription droplet digital PCR serves as a higher order method for absolute quantification of Potato virus Y strains. RNA viruses have a great potential for high genetic variability and rapid evolution that is generated by mutation and recombination under selection pressure.

This is also the case of Potato virus Y PVY , which comprises a high diversity of different recombinant and non-recombinant strains. Consequently, it is hard to develop reverse transcription real-time quantitative PCR RT-qPCR with the same amplification efficiencies for all PVY strains which would enable their equilibrate quantification; this is specially needed in mixed infections and other studies of pathogenesis.

RT-ddPCR is an absolute quantification method , where a calibration curve is not needed, and it is less prone to inhibitors. The RT-ddPCR developed and validated in this study achieved a dynamic range of quantification over five orders of magnitude, and in terms of its sensitivity, it was comparable to, or even better than, RT-qPCR. RT-ddPCR showed lower measurement variability. In addition, it can be used for quantification of RNA based on in-house reference materials that can then be used as calibrators in diagnostic laboratories.

Development of direct dating methods of fault gouges: Deep drilling into Nojima Fault, Japan. It is crucial to develop a direct dating method of fault gouges for the assessment of recent fault activity in terms of site evaluation for nuclear power plants. This method would be useful in regions without Late Pleistocene overlying sediments. In order to estimate the age of the latest fault slip event, it is necessary to use fault gouges which have experienced high frictional heating sufficient for age resetting. It is said that frictional heating is higher in deeper depths, because frictional heating generated by fault movement is determined depending on the shear stress.

Therefore, we should determine the reliable depth of age resetting, as it is likely that fault gouges from the ground surface have been dated to be older than the actual age of the latest fault movement due to incomplete resetting. In this project, we target the Nojima fault which triggered the Kobe earthquake in Japan.

Samples are collected from various depths ,m by trenching and drilling to investigate age resetting conditions and depth using several methods including electron spin resonance ESR and optical stimulated luminescence OSL , which are applicable to ages later than the Late Pleistocene.

The preliminary results by the ESR method show approx. These results indicate that samples from deeper depths preserve a younger age. In contrast, the OSL method dated approx. Although further consideration is still needed as there is a large margin of error, this result indicates that the age resetting depth of OSL is relatively shallow due to the high thermosensitivity of OSL compare to ESR. In the future, we plan to carry out further investigation for dating fault gouges from various depths up to approx. FY27 Commissioned for the disaster presentation on nuclear facilities Drilling.

First, kQ BJR is determined: Maintaining a consistent setup, the collimator is changed, and the MLC method is used. Finally, kQ is determined using PDDs acquired with a 9. This field is produced by setting the field to a size of 7. For each detector and collimator type, the beam injector was adjusted to give 5 different beam qualities; representing a range of clinical systems.

The difference between the values increased with detector volume. The age of some ancient pottery from the Valley of Vitor in the region of Arequipa, Peru, is determined by the thermoluminescence TL method. For these dose values, the TL intensity is observed to grow linearly, obtaining an accumulated dose of 1. Both results are within years AC, which is the period of the Wari culture.

A combined method for DNA analysis and radiocarbon dating from a single sample. Current protocols for ancient DNA and radiocarbon analysis of ancient bones and teeth call for multiple destructive samplings of a given specimen, thereby increasing the extent of undesirable damage to precious archaeological material.

Here we present a method that makes it possible to obtain both ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon dates from the same sample material. This is achieved by releasing DNA from the bone matrix through incubation with either EDTA or phosphate buffer prior to complete demineralization and collagen extraction utilizing the acid-base-acid-gelatinization and ultrafiltration procedure established in most radiocarbon dating laboratories.

We also detect no skews in radiocarbon dates compared to untreated samples. Development of a nanofiltration method for bone collagen 14C AMS dating. Radiocarbon dating of bones is usually performed on the collagen fraction. Incomplete removal can result in biased 14C dates. Ultrafiltration is an effective method of removal of low-molecular weight contaminants from bone collagen but it does not remove high-molecular weight contaminants, such as cross-linked humic collagen complexes.

However, comparative dating studies have raised the question whether this cleaning step itself may introduce contamination with carbon from the filters used. In this study, a nanofiltration method was developed using a ceramic filter to avoid a possible extraneous carbon contamination introduced by the filter.

This method should be applicable to various protein materials e. In this study bone collagen was hot acid hydrolyzed to amino acids and nanofiltrated. A filter with a molecular weight cutoff MWCO of Dalton was chosen in order to collect the amino acids in the permeate and the HSs in the retentate. Two pilot studies were set up. Two nanofiltration types were tested in pilot study 1: Humic substance HS -solutions with fossil carbon and modern hydrolyzed collagen contaminated with HSs were filtrated and analyzed with spectrofluorescence to determine the HS removal.

Cross flow nanofiltration showed the most efficient HS removal. A second pilot study based upon these results was set up wherein only cross flow filtration was performed. In natural product chemistry, it is often crucial to determine sugar composition as well as the absolute configuration of each monosaccharide in glycosides. It is based on the concept that the lowest layer is the oldest and the topmost layer is the youngest. An extended version of stratigraphy where the faunal deposits are used to establish dating. Faunal deposits include remains and fossils of dead animals. This method compares the age of remains or fossils found in a layer with the ones found in other layers.

The comparison helps establish the relative age of these remains. Bones from fossils absorb fluorine from the groundwater. The amount of fluorine absorbed indicates how long the fossil has been buried in the sediments. This technique solely depends on the traces of radioactive isotopes found in fossils. The rate of decay of these elements helps determine their age, and in turn the age of the rocks. Physical structure of living beings depends on the protein content in their bodies. The changes in this content help determine the relative age of these fossils. Each tree has growth rings in its trunk.

This technique dates the time period during which these rings were formed. It determines the period during which certain object was last subjected to heat. It is based on the concept that heated objects absorb light, and emit electrons. The emissions are measured to compute the age. Differentiation Using a Venn Diagram. A Venn diagram depicts both dating methods as two individual sets.

The area of intersection of both sets depicts the functions common to both. Take a look at the diagram to understand their common functions. When we observe the intersection in this diagram depicting these two dating techniques, we can conclude that they both have two things in common: Provide an idea of the sequence in which events have occurred.

Determine the age of fossils, rocks, or ancient monuments. Although absolute dating methods determine the accurate age compared to the relative methods, both are good in their own ways. Relative Dating Techniques Explained.